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In human genetics, Haplogroup R (M207) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

Haplogroup R is a subgroup of haplogroup P, associated with the M207 change. It is believed to have occurred somewhere in North West Asia between 30,000 and 35,000 years ago.

The majority of members of haplogroup R belong to the sub-haplogroup R1, defined by marker M173, with its main subgroups R1a1 (M17) and R1b (M343). Less common is the alternate subgroup R2 (M124), found only in Indian, Iranian, and central Asian populations. Individuals with neither of these mutations are categorised as belonging to group R*.

Haplogroup R1 is very common throughout Europe and western Eurasia. It is believed to be associated with the initial spread into Eurasia following the last glacial maximum.

Haplogroup R, for instance, is identified by a y chromosome mutation known as M173. Roughly 70 percent of English men have this lineage, 95 percent of Spanish men, and 95 percent of Irish men.


The reason a lot of western Europeans have it is because it defines an expansion in the end of the last ice age as people moved north out of Iberia (ancient Spain) . If you go back one step from M173—is M45, which arose in Central Asia, it indicates the path ancestors took through the steppes of Central Asia. Before that they were down in the Middle East.

The Middle Eastern marker, M89, represents a wave of migration out of Africa that occurred around 45,000 years ago.Every non-African has M168, which appeared in eastern Africa around 60,000 years ago. The Haplogroup R lineage ultimately traces all the way back to marker M168.